Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle-Eastern . Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “Soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle Eastern . Haoma is a divine plant in Zoroastrianism and in later Persian culture and mythology. Haoma has its origins in Indo-Iranian religion and is the cognate of Vedic.

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The feminine gender predominates for plant names in later Iranian see the examples in Morgenstierne and seems to reflect an Old Iranian tendency; cf. While the precise location ol the homeland of the Pro to-lndo-Iranian-spea king peoples remains undetermined, it can confidently be surmised to have been somewhere within an area well defined by the topography of interior Eurasia.

For a survey of the powers attributed to rue in European folklore sec H. In these instances the secular terms may have been interpreted as pejorative. No known psychotropic plant is so abundant and conspicuous as a source of psychoactive drugs over the Iranian area as is harmel. Whether Dioscurides’ report that moty was an Anatolian name for harmel establishes the botanical identity of Hermes’ moly is a matter of some controversy for which tee J. Consequently, if these merely imitative ceremonies came about because sauma was unavailable, it must have become unavailable at a time even antedating the earliest parts of the IJgVeda, Copyrighted material Introduction so lhat the RgWda would be of no value as evidence for the unavailability of the plant Iranian evidence for the continued use of the intoxicant into historic times see next chapter shows that the plant remained available and hence that its displacemenl from the ceremonies cannot have been caused by difficulties in its supply- Rather, it must be the case that from the earliest times ceremonies merely imitating the drinking of sauma existed side by side with ceremonies in which sauma was actually consumed.

James Darmesteterin his thesis on the mythology of the Avesta, speculating on the Parsi belief that Ephedra twigs do not decay, wrote: It may be added that B, T. This topos combines the format of origin myth and a statement of digging up the plant for purposive use; note e. Apparently over many generations the shamans of South America have discovered how to induce a wide range of experiences by varying the additives to he Banisteriopsis drug and a parallel body of empirical lore may have developed around the preparation of harmel as a drug.

Persian gusfand alongside guspand, Avestan gao.

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Paul Anton de Lagarde Naranjo recorded an aphrodisiac effect of harmaline upon subjects only at dosages less than those required for hallucinations, A curious account that the Turkish Sultan Siileyman administered the seeds of Peganum harmste to excite women in his harem is given by O- R.

Traditional Persian botany, however, regards Peganum harmala and Ruta graveolens as, respectively, the wild and cultivated species of the same genus, and since both plants have become widely known in India largely through their introduction by way of Iran, this taxonomy prevails in India as well. After a series of brilliant yellow flashes dancing dots will appear, soon to be replaced by a multitude of small luminous images that Copyrighted material Pharmacological Correspondence 27 seem to float in space and now begin to change their shapes and colors in kaleido- scopic fashion.

The plants now called soma and haoma lack the distinctive pro- perties or cultural importance that could account for their being the focus of such ancient and elaborate practices. The question which must then be asked is whether sauma was indeed burned in pre-lslamic Iran. The latter has more distant cognates with similar semantic range, e.

Full text of “Haoma & Harmaline”

Sauma was the sacred i. I hamoa discuss elsewhere the unitary structure of Harmsline 11 and Its constant relevance to the ritual actions actually accompanying its recital. It is the spectrum of knowledge and sharing that is the Nexus which keeps me tuned in here, often. The text is of a decidedly magical character, and the gods are called forth wholly for the purpose of furthering the effectiveness of the spirit of harmel in a specific situation, that of purging someone of sickness, that is to say, of demons.

Thou O sprig, givest salvation and not perdition, for thou make them strong and art a healer, thou workest healing and yieldest not Without denying that sauma drinking may have had such potential!

By being willing to take the role of zaotar, one would demonstrate his preparedness to expose his soul to judgment by the spirits and show his confidence that other priests would recognize his spiritual acceptability.

Haoma & Harmaline

Up 10 07 meter high. At others, the agents of death— the spirits of disease — threaten the initiate; still, at other times he may feel that he is about to be devoured by fierce animals. Similar statements appear in the Horn Yasht t the words of which “brine health and victory against enemies” Yasna Views Read Edit View history.

The essential place of sauma as an ingredient in the offering to Water is substantiated by Boyce ibid. If we look at religons and spirituality this is often a commen practis either in the form of repeating gods name or in the form of breathing exercises like meditation. Likewise, when clini- cally administering harmalinc orally in order to induce visions, Claudto Naranjo found that harmaline most effectively induced visions when it was combined other psychoactive substances.

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Decaisncana” and “C Elcgans” were used, but he docs not say how he knew of the ritual use ol these species- The two Ceropcgias are also asclepiadadous vines and probably merely substitute for Sarcostcmma brevistigma in local rites. Ruta montana 39 3- Panja: The experiences for which the drug is valued are not. The prevailing view, however, has been just the reverse: The need to forestal retaliation by the slain animal’s spirit in gaoma way could have been a factor in the persistence of the contrality of sauma in priestly traditions see Chapter 6.

Copyrighted material Hwrmaline of Harniel 35 yellow dye, harmel is sometimes referred to in India as a kind of henna i.

Haoma – Wikipedia

Avestan baresman bundle of twigs was originally a bundle of Haoma stalks. The latter development could not have taken place if. Whether species of Peganum, or varieties of P. To this infusion add three ounces of honey and two ounces of sesame oil.

Whether one believes barsom to have originally been grass or sauma stems, he must explain why it is that barsom has historically consisted of woody twigs. This page was harmaljne edited on 29 Decemberat In the Denkird VII 3.

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Zand i Wahman Yasht Yet these mean- ings would be oddly vague as designations of fuel plants. West of Khorasan the plant is increasingly encountered only as a weed on overgrazed, abandoned fields Thalen Nothing to add, save a thank you very much! In neither tradition is the ceremony conducted with an open acknowledgment that the plant regularly used as soma or haoma is not the one originally used, or that the character of the rite was ever mar- kedly different from what it is now.

Toni marked it as to-read Jun 28, Regarding the alternative preparation of isfand with vinegar above, cf.

The degree to which the presence of these and perhaps other additive plants alters the effect of yage has not yet been established, but may be considerable McKenna etai a and b. The A vesta clearly indicates there was more than a single haoma, Haoma is pouru.